China's first high-power offshore wind farm above 5 MW will be connected to the grid for power generation
China has abundant offshore wind energy resources and has the natural advantage of developing offshore wind power. At present, China has made breakthroughs in key technologies for large-capacity wind turbines and has industrial development conditions. A high-start, large-capacity, full-industrial offshore wind power industry base is being formed in Fujian, marking that China's offshore wind power is entering a rapid and concentrated scale development. New stage of development
Recently, the reporter learned from China's Yangtze River Three Gorges Corporation that the first batch of units in the first phase of the Fuqing Xinghua Bay Offshore Wind Power Project will be formally connected to the grid for power generation in mid-September. As China's first high-power offshore wind power prototype test wind farm with a capacity of more than 5 MW, 14 large wind turbines from 8 domestic and foreign manufacturers such as Goldwind, GE, Offshore, and Taizhong will compete in this field to determine the adaptability to Fujian. The best model for regional sea and wind conditions. This means that starting from the Fujian offshore wind power base, China's offshore wind power has entered a new stage of rapid development with concentrated and continuous scale development.
Innovation enhances manufacturing level
"I didn't dare to sleep all night, and it turned out that our construction and the quality of the fans were very reliable." After the two large fans just hoisted and successfully withstood the typhoon test, Sun Qiang, executive director of Fujian Energy Investment Corporation of the Three Gorges Group, was pleased. Say.
Fujian is not only the province with the best endowment of offshore wind power resources in China, but also the region with the best offshore wind power resources in Asia. The annual utilization hours even exceed 4,000 hours, and the annual utilization hours of onshore wind power in Inner Mongolia are only over 2,000 hours. Based on this, so far, China has planned tens of millions of kilowatts of wind power installed capacity in Fujian sea areas.
In order to smoothly promote the rapid development of concentrated offshore wind power, in November 2016, the Three Gorges Group launched the construction of the first phase of the 300,000-kilowatt offshore wind farm in Fuqing Xinghua Bay (prototype test wind farm) with a total investment of about 1.8 billion yuan, becoming The world's first international high-power offshore wind power test site.
"Economic Daily" reporter recently interviewed in the sea on the southeastern side of Jiangyin Peninsula, Fuqing City, Fujian Province, Xinghua Bay, two large wind turbines have been hoisted, beside several surrounding construction platforms, large piling boats and floating cranes are working intensively.
Lei Zengjuan, deputy general manager of Fujian Nengtou Company, told reporters that at the end of last year, Fujian ’s next-generation offshore wind power integrated mobile platform “Fujian Three Gorges” was docked at Xiamen Shipbuilding Industry. Its lifting capacity, deck working area and load are domestic. maximum. Thanks to this, the hoisting time of offshore wind turbines is greatly shortened, which only takes two and a half days, which effectively improves the construction efficiency of offshore wind power projects and reduces the construction cost of offshore wind farms.
In the Fuzhou Jiangyin Industrial Concentration Zone on the northern shore of Xinghua Bay, the Fujian Three Gorges Offshore Wind Power International Industrial Park covering an area of 1,000 acres is also under construction. "The prototype test wind farm will draw on the experience of the Three Gorges Project, let all manufacturers compete on the same stage, and make a comprehensive assessment to determine the best model to adapt to the Fujian region, and select advanced technology and reliable quality wind turbine manufacturers to enter the industrial park, and improve China through innovation. Offshore wind power equipment manufacturing level. "Said Chen Yongming, deputy general manager of the industrial park operating company.
It is reported that after the project is completed in December 2019, the annual output of wind turbines above 5 MW will be 1.5 million kilowatts, with an annual output value exceeding 10 billion yuan. At present, Goldwind Technology, Jiangsu CRRC, Xi'an Wind Power, LM Company and GE Company have signed an entry agreement or intent agreement.
"The key technologies for large-capacity wind turbines have made breakthroughs in China, and industrial development conditions are already in place. A high-start, large-capacity, full industrial chain offshore wind power industry base is being formed in Fujian," said Lu Chun, chairman of the Three Gorges Group.
China has unique development advantages
Although offshore wind power started late, due to the stability of sea wind resources and the characteristics of large power generation, it has been developing rapidly around the world in recent years. The latest data show that wind power generation accounts for 16% of the global renewable resource power generation, second only to hydropower.
According to statistics from the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), the global installed capacity of offshore wind power in 2016 was 2.219 million kilowatts, and the installed capacity of offshore wind power in 14 markets worldwide totaled 14.384 million kilowatts. The United Kingdom is the world's largest offshore wind power market, with installed capacity accounting for approximately 36% of the world's total; followed by Germany, which accounts for 29%. In 2016, China's offshore wind power installed capacity accounted for 11% of the world's total, replacing Denmark and jumping to third place.
"China has the natural advantage of developing offshore wind power. The coastline is as long as 18,000 kilometers, and the available sea area is more than 3 million square kilometers. The offshore wind energy resources are abundant." Sun Qiang said, according to the preliminary results of the detailed investigation of wind energy resources by the China Meteorological Administration, China ’s 5 In the offshore area within the water depth line of 25 meters to 50 meters above sea level, the installed capacity of wind power is about 200 million kilowatt hours. This shows that offshore wind power is the future development direction of China's power generation industry.
In 2016, China ’s new onshore wind power installed capacity dropped somewhat; at the same time, offshore wind power installed capacity increased significantly. According to statistics from China Wind Energy Association, in 2016, China's new offshore wind power installed capacity (lifting capacity) 154 units, the capacity reached 590,000 kilowatts, an increase of 64% over the previous year; cumulative installed capacity reached 1.63 million kilowatts, ranking third in the world.
Lei Zengjuan said that China's onshore wind power is mainly located in the northwestern region, and local capacity is limited, and external transmission depends on UHV transmission lines. Offshore wind power development areas are mainly concentrated in the economically developed eastern coastal areas. Vigorous development of offshore wind power can not only meet the power demand in the east, but the combination of land and offshore wind power will accelerate the pace of green power generation in China.
The reporter learned that according to the plan, by 2020, China will build 15 million kilowatts of offshore wind power (including 5 million kilowatts completed and 10 million kilowatts under construction). On this basis, the state has also determined the electricity price policy of 0.85 yuan / kWh for offshore wind farms and 0.75 yuan / kWh for intertidal wind farms. At the same time, a number of offshore wind power demonstration projects have been completed, and the level of equipment technology has been continuously improved.
Industry is in its infancy
"The development of offshore wind power in China is still in its infancy, and survey, design, construction management, operation and maintenance, technological innovation, and industrial financing are still not mature." Bi Yaxiong, deputy general manager of the Three Gorges Group, believes that the upstream and downstream of the industrial chain must be united to jointly promote offshore Comprehensive integration and development of the wind power industry chain.
"The development of offshore wind power involves many departments such as military, environmental protection, tourism, fisheries, ecology and shipping." Sun Qiang said that due to the lack of effective communication during the planning process, the asynchrony and incompatibility between the plans have become increasingly serious, and some factors Or lead to the waste of the company's early investment, causing huge economic losses.
Offshore wind power projects have a long electricity price recovery period, which puts pressure on operating costs. Taking the Three Gorges Group Xiangshui Offshore Wind Farm as an example, as of May 31, 2017, the cumulative on-grid electricity amounted to 391 million kWh and the electricity bill receivable was 332 million yuan; however, at present only 148 million yuan of the benchmark electricity price portion has been recovered, and the subsidized electricity portion The seventh batch of national subsidies submitted to the country, due to the large amount of subsidized electricity fees and long recovery periods, has caused pressure on business operations.
Compared with onshore wind power, the cost of offshore wind power in the later period is also much higher. After nearly 20 years of development, European offshore wind farms have formed a complete industrial chain, but currently there is no long-term operating experience and cost data accumulation for domestic offshore wind power. The operation and maintenance costs are only estimated and there is great uncertainty.
In addition, when major components of the wind turbine need to be replaced or repaired, large professional vessels must be leased, which is not only costly, but also greatly affected by sea conditions and weather, resulting in long operating and maintenance cycles and uncontrollable costs of offshore wind farms.
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