Non-explosive water-based lithium-ion battery
For the first time, researchers from the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the University of Maryland have developed a lithium-ion battery that uses a water-salt solution as an electrolyte. Fire and explosion hazards associated with commercially available non-aqueous lithium-ion batteries.
According to an ARL researcher specializing in electrochemistry and materials science, this technology will provide soldiers with a completely safe and flexible lithium-ion battery with the same energy density as SOA lithium-ion batteries. The battery is not at risk of fire and explosion, even under severe mechanical abuse.
Researchers at the University of Maryland have designed a new gel polymer electrolyte coating that can be applied to graphite or lithium anodes. This hydrophobic coating removes water molecules near the electrode surface, and then decomposes and forms a stable interface during the first charge. This interface is actually a thin layer formed by the decomposition products, which can separate the solid anode from the liquid electrolyte and protect it. The anode is protected from side effects, allowing the battery to use the required anode materials, such as graphite or metallic lithium, and to obtain better energy density and cycling capabilities.
"The key innovation here is to make a suitable gel that can lock the water in contact with the anode, so that the water does not decompose, and can form an interface to ensure the performance of the battery." A. James Clark, University of Maryland Professor Chunsheng Wang, a professor of the Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Engineering of the School of Engineering, said that the addition of a gel coating can also improve the safety advantages of new batteries compared to standard non-aqueous lithium-ion batteries, and compared to any other existing lithium-ion batteries , Higher energy density. All aqueous lithium-ion batteries benefit from the flammability of aqueous electrolytes, and the organic solvents used in non-aqueous electrolytes are highly flammable. However, the difference is that even if the interface layer is damaged (for example, the battery case is pierced), it reacts slowly with the lithium or lithiated graphite anode, which can prevent smoke and fire when the metal directly contacts the electrolyte. It even exploded.
Although the power and energy density of this new battery is currently only suitable for commercial applications powered by more dangerous non-aqueous batteries, certain improvements will make it more competitive. In particular, researchers hope to increase the total number of performance cycles that a battery can complete and minimize material costs. In addition, interface chemistry needs to be further refined before it can be commercialized, and more work needs to be done to expand the testing technology for large batteries. With sufficient funding, 4.0-volt chemicals can be commercialized in about five years .
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